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Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other brand names,[1] is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.[6] It is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist which works by causing relaxation of airway smooth muscle.[6] It is used to treat asthma, including asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[6] It may also be used to treat high blood potassium levels.[7] Salbutamol is usually used with an inhaler or nebulizer, but it is also available in a pill, liquid, and intravenous solution.[6][8] Onset of action of the inhaled version is typically within 15 minutes and lasts for two to six hours.[6]
Common side effects include shakiness, headache, fast heart rate, dizziness, and feeling anxious.[6] Serious side effects may include worsening bronchospasm, irregular heartbeat, and low blood potassium levels.[6] It can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but safety is not entirely clear.[6][9]
Salbutamol was patented in 1966 in Britain and became commercially available in the UK in 1969.[10][11] It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1982.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[12] Salbutamol is available as a generic medication.[6] In 2017, it was the tenth most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 50 million prescriptions.[13][14]
Source: Wikipedia


Almitrine (marketed as Duxil by Servier) is a diphenylmethylpiperazine derivative classified as a respiratory stimulant by the ATC. It enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep. A significant literature exists for this compound, including over 60 papers that Medline labels as reviews.
The clinical efficacy of almitrine-raubasine combination therapy for age related cerebral disorders and functional rehabilitation after stroke has been reviewed by Allain and Bentué-Ferrer.[1] They summarize two studies in which almitrine-raubasine improved some symptoms significantly more than placebo, especially in vascular cases. Their paper also suggests that other studies have shown a beneficial effect of this compound on neurosensory vascular disorders, specifically chorioretinal dysfunctions (visual symptomatology) and vertigo associated with electronystagmographic modifications. This paper further claims that the dosage and tolerance of the compound have been confirmed in a French multi-center study of 5,361 outpatients.
Source: Wikipedia


NCI-GLOSS Definition: A substance that is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Anakinra blocks the action of interleukin 1 (IL-1). It is a type of interleukin receptor antagonist.
Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Synonym: IL-1ra, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. US brand name: Kineret.
Source: NCI Dictionaries.
Wikipedia entry.


Dipyridamole (trademarked as Persantine and others) is a nucleoside transport inhibitor and a PDE3 inhibitor medication that inhibits blood clot formation[3] when given chronically and causes blood vessel dilation when given at high doses over a short time.

Dornase alfa

Dornase alfa (proprietary name Pulmozyme from Genentech) is a highly purified solution of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase), an enzyme which selectively cleaves DNA. Dornase alfa hydrolyzes the DNA present in sputum/mucus of cystic fibrosis patients and reduces viscosity in the lungs, promoting improved clearance of secretions. This protein therapeutic agent is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Source: Wikipedia


Favipiravir, sold under the brand name Avigan among others,[3] is an antiviral medication used to treat influenza in Japan.[4] It is also being studied to treat a number of other viral infections.[4] Like the experimental antiviral drugs T-1105 and T-1106, it is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative.
Source: Wikipedia


Nelfinavir (NFV; brand name Viracept) is an antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nelfinavir belongs to the class of drugs known as protease inhibitors (PIs) and like other PIs is almost always used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Nelfinavir has been shown to treat SARS-coronavirus, and is being tested to treat COVID-19.
Nelfinavir is an orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 protease inhibitor (Ki=2nM) and is widely prescribed in combination with HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection.[2]
It was patented in 1992 and approved for medical use in 1997.[3]
Source: Wikipedia


Remdesivir, sold under the brand name Veklury,[8][9] is a broad-spectrum antiviral medication developed by the biopharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences.[10] It is administered via injection into a vein.[11][12] Remdesivir is approved or authorized for emergency use to treat COVID‑19 in around 50 countries.[13] It may shorten the time it takes to recover from the infection.[14][15]
The most common side effect in healthy volunteers is raised blood levels of liver enzymes (a sign of liver problems).[8] The most common side effects in people with COVID‑19 is nausea.[8]
Side effects may include liver inflammation and an infusion-related reaction with nausea, low blood pressure, and sweating.[16] It is a prodrug that is intended to allow intracellular delivery of GS-441524 monophosphate and subsequent biotransformation into GS-441524 triphosphate, a ribonucleotide analogue inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase.[17]
Remdesivir is the first treatment for COVID‑19 to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[7]
Source: Wikipedia


NCI Thesaurus Definition: A recombinant, humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) with immunosuppressant activity. Tocilizumab targets and binds to both the soluble form of IL-6R (sIL-6R) and the membrane-bound form (mIL-6R), thereby blocking the binding of IL-6 to its receptor. This prevents IL-6-mediated signaling. Il-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the regulation of the immune response, is overproduced in autoimmune disorders, certain types of cancers and possibly various other inflammatory conditions.
Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Wikipedia entry.