Medicine
Oncology

Prostate cancer
Epidemiology, Risk factors, Prevention


Home > Disciplines > Medicine > Oncology > Prostate cancer > Epidemiology



CONTENTS



Epidemiology
CHARACTERISTICS OF LETHAL PROSTATE CANCER
PROSTATE CANCER INCIDENCE
ASPIRIN AND NON-ASPIRIN NSAID USE
FAMILIAL MORTALITY AND FAMILIAL INCIDENCE


Risk factors


AGE
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
ANTIBIOTICS
APPENDICITIS BEFORE AGE 20 YEARS
ASPRIRIN, STATIN, NSAIDS & COX2 INHIBITORS
BENZODIAZEPINE
BODY MASS INDEX
CHILDLESS MEN
CHOLESTEROL
CIGARETTE SMOKING
EJACULATORY FREQUENCY
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
FATTY ACIDS
FAMILIALITY
FAMILY HISTORY OF BREAST CANCER

FOODS
Wine
MARITAL STATUS
METABOLIC FACTORS
PESTICIDES
RISK OF SECOND CANCER
SITTING TIME
SELENIUM
TESTOSTERONE
TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS INFECTION
URIC ACID
VITAMIN B12
VITAMIN D


Prevention
ASPIRIN
CHEMOPREVENTION
FINASTERIDE
STATINS



Epidemiology




CANCER STATISTICS


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Cronin KA, Lake AJ, Scott S, Sherman RL, Noone AM, Howlader N, Henley SJ, Anderson RN, Firth AU, Ma J, Kohler BA, Jemal A.
Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, part I: National cancer statistics.
Cancer. 2018 Jul 1;124(13):2785-2800. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31551. Epub 2018 May 22.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF LETHAL PROSTATE CANCER


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Helgstrand JT, Røder MA, Klemann N, Toft BG, Brasso K, Vainer B, Iversen P.
Diagnostic characteristics of lethal prostate cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2017 Aug 2;84:18-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.07.007. [Epub ahead of print]
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PROSTATE CANCER INCIDENCE


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Capocaccia R, Foschi R, Zucchetto A, Valdagni R, Nicolai N, Maffezzini M, Gatta G.
Estimates of prostate cancer burden in Italy.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015 Dec 27;40:166-172. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.12.004. [Epub ahead of print]
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Downer MK, Stampfer MJ, Cooperberg MR.
Declining Incidence Rates of Prostate Cancer in the United States: Is This Good News or Not?
JAMA Oncol. 2017 May 11. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.0470. [Epub ahead of print]
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Herget KA, Patel DP, Hanson HA, Sweeney C, Lowrance WT.
Recent decline in prostate cancer incidence in the United States, by age, stage, and Gleason score.
Cancer Med. 2015 Dec 2. doi: 10.1002/cam4.549. [Epub ahead of print]
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Hoffman RM, Meisner A, Arap W, Barry M, Shah S, Zeliadt S, Wiggins CL.
Trends in United States prostate cancer incidence rates by age and stage, 1995-2012.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Dec 8. pii: cebp.0723.2015. [Epub ahead of print]
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Hu JC, Nguyen P, Mao J, Halpern J, Shoag J, Wright JD, Sedrakyan A.
Increase in Prostate Cancer Distant Metastases at Diagnosis in the United States.
JAMA Oncol. 2017 May 1;3(5):705-707. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5465.
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Jemal A, Ma J, Siegel R, Fedewa S, Brawley O, Ward EM.
Prostate Cancer Incidence Rates 2 Years After the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations Against Screening.
JAMA Oncol. 2016 Dec 1;2(12):1657-1660. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.2667.
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Li SQ, Pan XF, Kashaf MS, Xue QP, Luo HJ, Wang YY, Wen Y, Yang ChX.
Five-Year Survival is Not a Useful Measure for Cancer Control in the Population: an Analysis Based on UK Data
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017 Feb 1;18(2):571-576.
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Negoita S, Feuer EJ, Mariotto A, Cronin KA, Petkov VI, Hussey SK, Benard V, Henley SJ, Anderson RN, Fedewa S, Sherman RL, Kohler BA, Dearmon BJ, Lake AJ, Ma J, Richardson LC, Jemal A, Penberthy L.
Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, part II: Recent changes in prostate cancer trends and disease characteristics.
Cancer. 2018 May 22. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31549. [Epub ahead of print]
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Penson DF.
Re: Increase in Prostate Cancer Distant Metastases at Diagnosis in the United States.
J Urol. 2017 Jul;198(1):104-105. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2017.04.041. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
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ASPIRIN AND NON-ASPIRIN NSAID USE


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Hurwitz LM, Joshu CE, Barber JR, Prizment AE, Vitolins MZ, Jones MR, Folsom AR, Han M, Platz EA.
Aspirin and Non-Aspirin NSAID Use and Prostate Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Case-Fatality in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 Nov 28. pii: cebp.0965.2018. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0965. [Epub ahead of print]
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Sauer CM, Myran DT, Costentin CE, Zwisler G, Safder T, Papatheodorou S, Mucci LA.
Effect of long term aspirin use on the incidence of prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2018 Dec;132:66-75. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.09.013. Epub 2018 Sep 29.
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WHITE-BLACK DIFFERENCES IN PROSTATE CANCER INCIDENCE


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Krok-Schoen JL, Fisher JL, Baltic RD, Paskett ED.
White-Black Differences in Cancer Incidence, Stage at Diagnosis, and Survival among Adults Aged 85 Years and Older in the United States.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Aug 15. pii: cebp.0354.2016. [Epub ahead of print]
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PATIENTS WITH DIABETES


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Lutz SZ, Todenhöfer T, Wagner R, Hennenlotter J, Ferchl JM, Scharpf MO, Martus P, Staiger H, Fritsche A, Stenzl A, Häring HU, Heni M.
Higher prevalence of lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer in patients with diabetes.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018 Jan 12. pii: ERC-17-0465. doi: 10.1530/ERC-17-0465. [Epub ahead of print]
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FAMILIAL MORTALITY AND FAMILIAL INCIDENCE


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Hemminki K, Sundquist J, Brandt A.
Familial mortality and familial incidence in cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2011 Feb 20;29(6):712-8. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2010.30.5664. Epub 2011 Jan 4.
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Hemminki K, Ji J, Försti A, Sundquist J, Lenner P.
Concordance of survival in family members with prostate cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1705-9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.13.3355.
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Risk factors




OVERVIEW


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Wei EK, Wolin KY, Colditz GA.
Time course of risk factors in cancer etiology and progression.
J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 10;28(26):4052-7. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.9324. Epub 2010 Jul 19.
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AGE


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da Cruz JAS, Passerotti CC, Dos Reis ST, Guariero MES, de Campos OD, Leite KRM, Srougi M.
Is Age an Independent Factor for Prostate Cancer? A Paired Analysis.
Curr Urol. 2017 Jan;9(4):183-187. doi: 10.1159/000447138. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
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ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE


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Lin HC, Kao LT, Chung SD, Huang CC, Shia BC, Huang CY.
Alzheimer's disease is associated with prostate cancer: a population-based study.
Oncotarget. 2018 Jan 10;9(7):7616-7622. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.24139. eCollection 2018 Jan 26.
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ANTIBIOTICS


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Boursi B, Mamtani R, Haynes K, Yang YX.
Recurrent antibiotic exposure may promote cancer formation - Another step in understanding the role of the human microbiota?
Eur J Cancer. 2015 Aug 31. pii: S0959-8049(15)00805-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.08.015. [Epub ahead of print]
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APPENDICITIS BEFORE AGE 20 YEARS


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Ugge H, Udumyan R, Carlsson J, Davidsson S, Andrén O, Montgomery S, Fall K.
Appendicitis before age 20 years is associated with an increased risk of later prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 Mar 27. pii: cebp.1204.2017. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-1204. [Epub ahead of print]
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ASPRIRIN, STATIN, NSAIDS AND COX2 INHIBITORS


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Kang M, Ku JH, Kwak C, Kim HH, Jeong CW.
Effects of Aspirin, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Statin and COX2 Inhibitor on the Developments of Urological Malignancies: A Population-Based Study with 10-Year Follow-up Data in Korea.
Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Oct 27. doi: 10.4143/crt.2017.248. [Epub ahead of print]
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Shang Z, Wang X, Yan H, Cui B, Wang Q, Wu J, Cui X, Li J, Ou T, Yang K.
Intake of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
Front Oncol. 2018 Oct 23;8:437. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2018.00437. eCollection 2018.
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BENZODIAZEPINE


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Zhang T, Yang X, Zhou J, Liu P, Wang H, Li A, Zhou Y.
Benzodiazepine drug use and cancer risk: a dose-response meta analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 19;8(60):102381-102391. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.22057. eCollection 2017 Nov 24.
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BODY MASS INDEX


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Zhong S, Yan X, Wu Y, Zhang X, Chen L, Tang J, Zhao J.
Body mass index and mortality in prostate cancer patients: a dose-response meta-analysis.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2016 Jan 12. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2015.64. [Epub ahead of print]
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CHILDLESS MEN


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Mao Y, Xu X, Zheng X, Xie L.
Reduced risk of prostate cancer in childless men as compared to fathers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 11;6:19210. doi: 10.1038/srep19210.
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CHOLESTEROL


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Heir T, Falk RS, Robsahm TE, Sandvik L, Erikssen J, Tretli S.
Cholesterol and prostate cancer risk: a long-term prospective cohort study.
BMC Cancer. 2016 Aug 17;16:643. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2691-5.
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Schnoeller TJ, Jentzmik F, Schrader AJ, Steinestel J.
Influence of serum cholesterol level and statin treatment on prostate cancer aggressiveness.
Oncotarget. 2017 Apr 7. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16943. [Epub ahead of print]
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CIGARETTE SMOKING


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Froehner M, Koch R, Wirth MP.
Re: Malte Rieken, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Luis A. Kluth, et al. Association of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy. Eur Urol. In press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.05.038.
Eur Urol. 2015 Nov;68(5):e103. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.08.011. Epub 2015 Aug 28.
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Rieken M, Shariat SF.
Reply to Michael Froehner, Rainer Koch, Manfred P. Wirth's Letter to the Editor re: Malte Rieken, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Luis A. Kluth, et al. Association of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy. Eur Urol. In press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.05.038.
Eur Urol. 2015 Nov;68(5):e104-5. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.08.012. Epub 2015 Aug 24.
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Rieken M, Shariat SF, Kluth LA, Fajkovic H, Rink M, Karakiewicz PI, Seitz C, Briganti A, Rouprêt M, Loidl W, Trinh QD, Bachmann A, Pourmand G.
Association of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy.
Eur Urol. 2015 Dec;68(6):949-56. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.05.038. Epub 2015 Jun 3.
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Taneja SS.
Re: Association of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation with Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy.
J Urol. 2015 Nov;194(5):1285-6. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.08.057. Epub 2015 Aug 15.
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EJACULATORY FREQUENCY


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Dall'Era MA, De Vere White RW.
New Insights into Ejaculatory Frequency and Prostate Cancer Risk: Association, Causation, or What Do We Have to Lose?
Eur Urol. 2018 Aug 31. pii: S0302-2838(18)30599-2. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2018.08.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Comment on: Rider JR et al, Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Updated Results with an Additional Decade of Follow-up. (Eur Urol. 2016 Dec)
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Papa NP, MacInnis RJ, English DR, Bolton D, Davis ID, Lawrentschuk N, Millar JL, Pedersen J, Severi G, Southey MC, Hopper JL, Giles GG.
Ejaculatory frequency and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: Findings from a case-control study.
Urol Oncol. 2017 Mar 27. pii: S1078-1439(17)30107-2. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2017.03.007. [Epub ahead of print]
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Rider JR, Wilson KM, Sinnott JA, Kelly RS, Mucci LA, Giovannucci EL.
Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Updated Results with an Additional Decade of Follow-up.
Eur Urol. 2016 Dec;70(6):974-982. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.03.027. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
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ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION


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Lin WY, Chang YH, Lin CL, Kao CH, Wu HC.
Erectile dysfunction and the risk of prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017 Apr 13. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17082. [Epub ahead of print]
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FAMILIALITY


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Frank C, Sundquist J, Hemminki A, Hemminki K.
Familial Associations Between Prostate Cancer and Other Cancers.
Eur Urol. 2016 Aug 4. pii: S0302-2838(16)30436-5. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.07.031. [Epub ahead of print]
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Isaacs WB.
What Do Myeloma, Breast Cancer, and Prostate Cancer Have in Common?
Eur Urol. 2016 Sep 3. pii: S0302-2838(16)30531-0. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.058. [Epub ahead of print]
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Family history of breast cancer


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Lamy PJ, Trétarre B, Rebillard X, Sanchez M, Cénée S, Ménégaux F.
Family history of breast cancer increases the risk of prostate cancer: results from the EPICAP study.
Oncotarget. 2018 May 4;9(34):23661-23669. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.25320. eCollection 2018 May 4.
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Family history of breast or prostate cancer


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Barber LE, Gerke T, Markt SC, Peisch SF, Wilson KM, Ahearn TU, Giovannucci EL, Parmigiani G, Mucci LA.
Family history of breast or prostate cancer and prostate cancer risk.
Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Aug 6. pii: clincanres.0370.2018. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0370. [Epub ahead of print]
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FOODS




Overview


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Kogevinas M, Espinosa A, Castelló A, Gómez-Acebo I, Guevara M, Martin V, Amiano P, Alguacil J, Peiro R, Moreno V, Costas L, Fernández-Tardón G, Jimenez JJ, Marcos-Gragera R, Perez-Gomez B, Llorca J, Moreno-Iribas C, Fernández-Villa T, Oribe M, Aragones N, Papantoniou K, Pollán M, Castano-Vinyals G, Romaguera D.
Effect of mistimed eating patterns on breast and prostate cancer risk (MCC-Spain Study).
Int J Cancer. 2018 Jul 17. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31649. [Epub ahead of print]
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Lane JA, Oliver SE, Appleby PN, Lentjes MA, Emmett P, Kuh D, Stephen A, Brunner EJ, Shipley MJ, Hamdy FC, Neal DE, Donovan JL, Khaw KT, Key TJ.
Prostate cancer risk related to foods, food groups, macronutrients and micronutrients derived from the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium food diaries.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Sep 28. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.162. [Epub ahead of print]
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Inflammatory potential of diet


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Lu DL, Ren ZJ, Zhang Q, Ren PW, Yang B, Liu LR, Dong Q.
Meta-analysis of the association between the inflammatory potential of diet and urologic cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2018 Oct 1;13(10):e0204845. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204845. eCollection 2018.
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Alcohol


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Brunner C, Davies NM, Martin RM, Eeles R, Easton D, Kote-Jarai Z, Al Olama AA, Benlloch S, Muir K, Giles G, Wiklund F, Gronberg H, Haiman CA, Schleutker J, Nordestgaard BG, Travis RC, Neal D, Donovan J, Hamdy FC, Pashayan N, Khaw KT, Stanford JL, Blot WJ, Thibodeau S, Maier C, Kibel AS, Cybulski C, Cannon-Albright L, Brenner H, Park J, Kaneva R, Batra J, Teixeira MR, Pandha H; PRACTICAL Consortium,., Zuccolo L.
Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study.
Int J Cancer. 2016 Sep 19. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30436. [Epub ahead of print]
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Coffee


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Xia J, Chen J, Xue JX, Yang J, Wang ZJ.
An Up-to-date Meta-analysis of Coffee Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer.
Urol J. 2017 Aug 29;14(5):4079-4088.
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Wang A, Wang S, Zhu C, Huang H, Wu L, Wan X, Yang X, Zhang H, Miao R, He L, Sang X, Zhao H.
Coffee and cancer risk: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.
Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 26;6:33711. doi: 10.1038/srep33711.
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Fatty acids


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Chua ME, Sio MC, Sorongon MC, Dy JS.
Relationship of dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 Fatty acids with risk of prostate cancer development: a meta-analysis of prospective studies and review of literature.
Prostate Cancer. 2012;2012:826254. doi: 10.1155/2012/826254. Epub 2012 Oct 18.
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Nguyen PL, Ma J, Chavarro JE, Freedman ML, Lis R, Fedele G, Fiore C, Qiu W, Fiorentino M, Finn S, Penney KL, Eisenstein A, Schumacher FR, Mucci LA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Loda M.
Fatty acid synthase polymorphisms, tumor expression, body mass index, prostate cancer risk, and survival.
J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 1;28(25):3958-64. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.0793. Epub 2010 Aug 2.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Zhao Z, Reinstatler L, Klaassen Z, Xu Y, Yang X, Madi R, Terris MK, Qian SY, Kelavkar U, Moses KA.
The Association of Fatty Acid Levels and Gleason Grade among Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.
PLoS One. 2016 Nov 23;11(11):e0166594. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166594.
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Fish consumption


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Outzen M, Tjønneland A, Christensen J, Olsen A.
Fish consumption and prostate cancer risk and mortality in a Danish cohort study.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2016 Nov 22. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000330. [Epub ahead of print]
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Fruit and vegetable intake


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Meng H, Hu W, Chen Z, Shen Y.
Fruit and vegetable intake and prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2013 Apr 1. doi: 10.1111/ajco.12067. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



Legume intake


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Li J, Mao QQ.
Legume intake and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Oncotarget. 2017 Apr 3. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16794. [Epub ahead of print]
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Milk & dairy products


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Harrison S, Lennon R, Holly J, Higgins JPT, Gardner M, Perks C, Gaunt T, Tan V, Borwick C, Emmet P, Jeffreys M, Northstone K, Rinaldi S, Thomas S, Turner SD, Pease A, Vilenchick V, Martin RM, Lewis SJ.
Does milk intake promote prostate cancer initiation or progression via effects on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cancer Causes Control. 2017 Jun;28(6):497-528. doi: 10.1007/s10552-017-0883-1. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
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Lu W, Chen H, Niu Y, Wu H, Xia D, Wu Y.
Dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk: a meta-analysis of 11 population-based cohort studies.
Nutr J. 2016 Oct 21;15(1):91.
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Tat D, Kenfield SA, Cowan JE, Broering JM, Carroll PR, Van Blarigan EL, Chan JM.
Milk and other dairy foods in relation to prostate cancer recurrence: Data from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor (CaPSURE™).
Prostate. 2017 Nov 6. doi: 10.1002/pros.23441. [Epub ahead of print]
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Red meat


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Bylsma LC, Alexander DD.
A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer.
Nutr J. 2015 Dec 21;14(1):125. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0111-3.
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Wolk A.
Potential health hazards of eating red meat.
J Intern Med. 2016 Sep 6. doi: 10.1111/joim.12543. [Epub ahead of print]
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Wu K, Spiegelman D, Hou T, Albanes D, Allen NE, Berndt SI, van den Brandt PA, Giles GG, Giovannucci E, Goldbohm RA, Goodman GG, Goodman PJ, Håkansson N, Inoue M, Key TJ, Kolonel LN, Männistö S, McCullough ML, Neuhouser ML, Park Y, Platz EA, Schenk JM, Sinha R, Stampfer MJ, Stevens VL, Tsugane S, Visvanathan K, Wilkens LR, Wolk A, Ziegler RG, Smith-Warner SA.
Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies.
Int J Cancer. 2015 Dec 19. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29973. [Epub ahead of print]
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You W, Henneberg M.
Prostate Cancer Incidence is Correlated to Total Meat Intake– a Cross-National Ecologic Analysis of 172 Countries
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Aug 24;19(8):2229-2239.
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Saturated fat


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Allott EH, Arab L, Su LJ, Farnan L, Fontham ET, Mohler JL, Bensen JT, Steck SE.
Saturated fat intake and prostate cancer aggressiveness: results from the population-based North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2016 Sep 6. doi: 10.1038/pcan.2016.39. [Epub ahead of print]
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Traditional Dietary Pattern


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Niclis C, Román MD, Osella AR, Eynard AR, Díaz Mdel P.
Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study.
J Cancer Epidemiol. 2015;2015:179562. doi: 10.1155/2015/179562. Epub 2015 Nov 16.
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Wine and Alcohol


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Michael J, Howard LE, Markt SC, De Hoedt A, Bailey C, Mucci LA, Freedland SJ, Allott EH.
Early-Life Alcohol Intake and High-Grade Prostate Cancer: Results from an Equal-Access, Racially Diverse Biopsy Cohort.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018 Oct;11(10):621-628. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0057. Epub 2018 Aug 23.
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Printz C.
Early-age drinkers more likely to have high-grade prostate cancer later.
Cancer. 2019 Jan 1;125(1):11. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31899.
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Vartolomei MD, Kimura S, Ferro M, Foerster B, Abufaraj M, Briganti A, Karakiewicz PI, Shariat SF.
The impact of moderate wine consumption on the risk of developing prostate cancer.
Clin Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 17;10:431-444. doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S163668. eCollection 2018.
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MARITAL STATUS


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Capogrosso P, Ventimiglia E, Boeri L, Cazzaniga W, Chierigo F, Montorsi F, Salonia A.
Male infertility as a proxy of the overall male health status.
Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2018 Mar 28. doi: 10.23736/S0393-2249.18.03063-1. [Epub ahead of print]
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Huang TB, Zhou GC, Dong CP, Wang LP, Luan Y, Ye JT, Gu X, Yao XD, Zheng JH, Ding XF.
Marital status independently predicts prostate cancer survival in men who underwent radical prostatectomy: An analysis of 95,846 individuals.
Oncol Lett. 2018 Apr;15(4):4737-4744. doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.7964. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
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METABOLIC FACTORS


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Dickerman B, Mucci L.
Metabolic Factors and Prostate Cancer Risk.
Clin Chem. 2019 Jan;65(1):42-44. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2018.287243. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
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Meyerhardt JA, Ma J, Courneya KS.
Energetics in colorectal and prostate cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 10;28(26):4066-73. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.8797. Epub 2010 Jul 19.
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Xiang YZ, Xiong H, Cui ZL, Jiang SB, Xia QH, Zhao Y, Li GB, Jin XB.
The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Feb 13;32:9. doi: 10.1186/1756-9966-32-9.
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PESTICIDES


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Lewis-Mikhael AM, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Ofir Guiron T, Olmedo-Requena R, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Jiménez-Moleón JJ.
Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Occup Environ Med. 2015 Dec 7. pii: oemed-2014-102692. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102692. [Epub ahead of print]
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RISK OF SECOND CANCER


Risk of colorectal cancer


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Ko SH, Baeg MK, Bae WJ, Kim P, Choi MG.
Prostate cancer patients may have an increased risk of coexisting advanced colorectal neoplasms.
Onco Targets Ther. 2016 Sep 9;9:5611-7. doi: 10.2147/OTT.S110595.
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Risk of malignant melanoma


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Thomsen FB, Folkvaljon Y, Garmo H, Robinson D, Loeb S, Ingvar C, Lambe M, Stattin P.
Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer. Nationwide, population-based cohort study.
Int J Cancer. 2015 Dec 14. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29961. [Epub ahead of print]
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SITTING TIME


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Rangul V, Sund ER, Mork PJ, Røe OD, Bauman A.
The associations of sitting time and physical activity on total and site-specific cancer incidence: Results from the HUNT study, Norway.
PLoS One. 2018 Oct 23;13(10):e0206015. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206015. eCollection 2018.
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SELENIUM


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Chan JM, Oh WK, Xie W, Regan MM, Stampfer MJ, King IB, Abe M, Kantoff PW.
Plasma selenium, manganese superoxide dismutase, and intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug 1;27(22):3577-83. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.18.8938. Epub 2009 Jun 15.
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Platz EA, Lippman SM.
Selenium, genetic variation, and prostate cancer risk: epidemiology reflects back on selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug 1;27(22):3569-72. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.22.2117. Epub 2009 Jun 15. No Source available. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2010 Dec 1;28(34):5126. Lippman, Scott M [added].
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Sayehmiri K, Azami M, Mohammadi Y, Soleymani A, Tardeh Z.
The association between Selenium and Prostate Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Jun 25;19(6):1431-1437.
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TESTOSTERONE


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Boyle P, Koechlin A, Bota M, d'Onofrio A, Zaridze DG, Perrin P, Fitzpatrick J, Burnett AL, Boniol M.
Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate specific antigen (PSA): a meta-analysis.
BJU Int. 2016 Jan 18. doi: 10.1111/bju.13417. [Epub ahead of print]
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Eisenberg ML.
Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Cancer Incidence.
World J Mens Health. 2015 Dec;33(3):125-9. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.2015.33.3.125. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
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TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS INFECTION




PROSTATE CANCER RISK


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Marous M, Huang WY, Rabkin CS, Hayes RB, Alderete JF, Rosner B, Grubb RL 3rd, Winter AC, Sutcliffe S.
Trichomonas vaginalis infection and risk of prostate cancer: associations by disease aggressiveness and race/ethnicity in the PLCO Trial.
Cancer Causes Control. 2017 Aug;28(8):889-898. doi: 10.1007/s10552-017-0919-6. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
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Vicier C, Werner L, Chipman J, Harshman LC, Patil DH, Fichorova RN, Rider JR, Sanda MG, Mucci LA, Sweeney CJ.
Elevated Serum Cytokines and Trichomonas vaginalis Serology at Diagnosis Are Not Associated With Higher Gleason Grade or Lethal Prostate Cancer.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018 Oct 4. pii: S1558-7673(18)30491-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clgc.2018.09.022. [Epub ahead of print]
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Zhu Z, Davidson KT, Brittingham A, Wakefield MR, Bai Q, Xiao H, Fang Y.
Trichomonas vaginalis: a possible foe to prostate cancer.
Med Oncol. 2016 Oct;33(10):115. doi: 10.1007/s12032-016-0832-y. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
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PROSTATE CANCER MORTALITY


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Tsang SH, Peisch SF, Rowan B, Markt SC, Gonzalez-Feliciano AG, Sutcliffe S, Platz EA, Mucci LA, Ebot EM.
Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and prostate cancer mortality.
Int J Cancer. 2018 Sep 22. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31885. [Epub ahead of print]
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URIC ACID


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Benli E, Cirakoglu A, Ayyıldız SN, Yüce A.
Comparison of serum uric acid levels between prostate cancer patients and a control group.
Cent European J Urol. 2018;71(2):242-247. doi: 10.5173/ceju.2018.1619. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
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VITAMIN B12


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Mitchell D
Can vitamin B12 cause prostate cancer?
Prostate.net 2011 Jan 22. Accessed 2018 May 3.
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VITAMIN D


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Song Z, Yao Q, Zhuo Z, Ma Z, Chen G.
Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: a dose-response meta-analysis.
Endocr Connect. 2018 Oct 1. pii: /journals/ec/aop/ec-18-0283.xml. doi: 10.1530/EC-18-0283. [Epub ahead of print]
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Stanaland M, Jiroutek MR, Holland MA.
Study of the Association Between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Prostate Cancer.
Mil Med. 2017 May;182(5):e1769-e1774. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-16-00331.
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Prevention


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Al-Naggar RA, Anil Sh.
Artificial Light at Night and Cancer: Global Study
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016 Oct 1;17(10):4661-4664.
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Schleper A, Sullivan DK, Thrasher JB, Holzbeierlein JM, Klemp J, Befort C, Hamilton-Reeves JM.
Weight Management to Reduce Prostate Cancer Risk: A Survey of Men's Needs and Interests.
Cancer Clin Oncol. 2016 May;5(1):43-52.
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Unger JM, Till C, Thompson IM Jr, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Wright JD, Barlow WE, Ramsey SD, Minasian LM, Hershman DL.
Long-term Consequences of Finasteride vs Placebo in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016 Aug 26;108(12). pii: djw168. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djw168. Print 2016 Dec.
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ASPIRIN AND PREVENTION


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Tsoi KKF, Ho JMW, Chan FCH, Sung JJY.
Long-term use of low-dose aspirin for cancer prevention: A 10-year population cohort study in Hong Kong.
Int J Cancer. 2018 Dec 21. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32083. [Epub ahead of print]
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Yang L, Chen Y, Tang Z, Xue W, Qiu S, Tan P, Wei Q.
Aspirin and levofloxacin for the prevention of the occurrence of prostate cancer or transformation to castration-resistant prostate cancer: a two-part, open-label, randomised, controlled study.
Lancet. 2016 Oct;388 Suppl 1:S85. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32012-8.
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CONCOMITANT USE OF STATINS


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Ma Y, Brusselaers N.
Maintenance use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prostate cancer risk.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017 Dec 19. doi: 10.1038/s41391-017-0021-x. [Epub ahead of print]
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CHEMOPREVENTION


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Gleave ME, Klotz L.
Testosterone Therapy Can be Given to Men with No Concern that it will Promote Prostate Cancer Development or Progression: Con.
J Urol. 2016 Oct;196(4):985-8. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2016.08.010. Epub 2016 Aug 9.
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Morgentaler A.
Testosterone Therapy Can be Given to Men with No Concern that it will Promote Prostate Cancer Development or Progression: Pro.
J Urol. 2016 Oct;196(4):985-8. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2016.07.075. Epub 2016 Jul 20.
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FINASTERIDE


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Parnes HL, Thompson IM, Ford LG.
Prevention of hormone-related cancers: prostate cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 10;23(2):368-77. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.08.027
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Thompson IM, Pauler Ankerst D, Chi C, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lippman SM, Lucia MS, Parnes HL, Coltman CA Jr.
Prediction of prostate cancer for patients receiving finasteride: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3076-81. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2006.07.6836
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Vickers AJ, Savage CJ, Lilja H.
Finasteride to prevent prostate cancer: should all men or only a high-risk subgroup be treated?
J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 1;28(7):1112-6. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.23.5572. Epub 2010 Feb 1.
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STATINS


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Dawe DE, Ye X, Czaykowski P, Jassal D, Singh H, Skarsgard D, Aprikian A, Mahmud SM.
The effect of statin use on the incidence of prostate cancer: A population-based nested case-control study.
Int J Cancer. 2018 Feb 6. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31295. [Epub ahead of print]
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VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTS


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Manson JE, Cook NR, Lee IM, Christen W, Bassuk SS, Mora S, Gibson H, Gordon D, Copeland T, D'Agostino D, Friedenberg G, Ridge C, Bubes V, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC, Buring JE; VITAL Research Group.
Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease.
N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 10. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1809944. [Epub ahead of print]
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