Medicine
Oncology

Prostate cancer
Etiology, Pathogenesis, Pathology


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CONTENTS



ANDROGEN RECEPTOR-INDEPENDENT PROSTATE CANCER

HORMONES

EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS

GENETICS OF PROSTATE CANCER

GLEASON SCORE

HEREDITARINESS

HISTOPATHOLOGY

INFLAMMATION

METASTASIS
OVERVIEW: ORIGIN
MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASE
FUELED BY FAT?

MICROENVIRONMENT

MRI VISIBILITY

OLIGOMETASTATIC PROSTATE CANCER

PATIENT AGE AND AGGRESSIVENESS

PERINEURAL INVASION

PDE5 INHIBITORS

PROGRESSION AND RECURRENCE
EXTRACELLULAR TRANSFER
BEHAVIOR
Depression
NUTRITION
Cholesterol
Diabetes
REPROGRAMMING
STROMAL FACTORS

PROSTATE SARCOMAS

RESISTANCE

STATINS

STEM CELLS

SUBTYPING

TESTOSTERONE

TUMOR TRANSFORMATION AFTER HORMONOTHERAPY

DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER





ANDROGEN RECEPTOR-INDEPENDENT PROSTATE CANCER


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Sahin I, Mega AE, Carneiro BA.
Androgen receptor-independent prostate cancer: an emerging clinical entity.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018 Jan 15:1-2. doi: 10.1080/15384047.2018.1423926. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



HORMONES




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Özdemir BC, Dotto GP.
Sex Hormones and Anticancer Immunity.
Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Mar 19. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-0137. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



RESISTANCE, NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION AND TUMOR METASTASIS


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Niu Y, Guo C, Wen S, Tian J, Luo J, Wang K, Tian H, Yeh S, Chang C.
ADT with antiandrogens in prostate cancer induces adverse effect of increasing resistance, neuroendocrine differentiation and tumor metastasis.
Cancer Lett. 2018 Sep 15;439:47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.09.020. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER


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Choi YJ, Lee DH, Han KD, Yoon H, Shin CM, Park YS, Kim N.
Is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with the development of prostate cancer? A nationwide study with 10,516,985 Korean men.
PLoS One. 2018 Sep 19;13(9):e0201308. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201308. eCollection 2018.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS


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Kgatle MM, Kalla AA, Islam MM, Sathekge M, Moorad R.
Prostate Cancer: Epigenetic Alterations, Risk Factors, and Therapy.
Prostate Cancer. 2016;2016:5653862. Epub 2016 Nov 6.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Odero-Marah V, Hawsawi O, Henderson V, Sweeney J.
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Prostate Cancer.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1095:101-110. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95693-0_6. First Online: 19 September 2018.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



GLEASON SCORE




GLEASON SCORE 7


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Sowalsky AG, Kissick HT, Gerrin S, Schaefer R, Xia Z, Russo J, Arredouani MS, Bubley GJ, Sanda MG, Li W, Ye H, Balk SP.
Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers Emerge Through Branched Evolution of Clonal Gleason Pattern 3 and 4.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Jan 24. pii: clincanres.2414.2016. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2414. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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van Oort IM, Schout BM, Kiemeney LA, Hulsbergen CA, Witjes JA.
Does the tertiary Gleason pattern influence the PSA progression-free interval after retropubic radical prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer?
Eur Urol. 2005 Oct;48(4):572-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2005.06.003. Epub 2005 Jun 30.
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HEREDITARINESS


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Zhen JT, Syed J, Nguyen KA, Leapman MS, Agarwal N, Brierley K, Llor X, Hofstatter E, Shuch B.
Genetic testing for hereditary prostate cancer: Current status and limitations.
Cancer. 2018 Apr 18. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31316. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



HISTOPATHOLOGY


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Egevad L, Delahunt B, Kristiansen G, Samaratunga H, Varma M.
Contemporary prognostic indicators for prostate cancer incorporating International Society of Urological Pathology recommendations.
Pathology. 2018 Jan;50(1):60-73. doi: 10.1016/j.pathol.2017.09.008. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Humphrey PA.
Histopathology of Prostate Cancer.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2017 Apr 7. pii: a030411. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a030411. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER


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Swanson GP, Epstein JI, Ha CS, Kryvenko ON.
Pathological characteristics of low risk prostate cancer based on totally embedded prostatectomy specimens.
Prostate. 2015 Mar;75(4):424-9. doi: 10.1002/pros.22928. Epub 2014 Nov 21.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



INFLAMMATION


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Klink JC, Bañez LL, Gerber L, Lark A, Vollmer RT, Freedland SJ.
Intratumoral inflammation is associated with more aggressive prostate cancer.
World J Urol. 2013 Dec;31(6):1497-503. doi: 10.1007/s00345-013-1065-8. Epub 2013 Apr 2.
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Tewari AK, Stockert JA, Yadav SS, Yadav KK, Khan I.
Inflammation and Prostate Cancer.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1095:41-65. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95693-0_3. First Online: 19 September 2018.
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METASTASIS




OVERVIEW: ORIGIN


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La Manna F, Karkampouna S, Zoni E, De Menna M, Hensel J, Thalmann GN, Kruithof-de Julio M.
Metastases in Prostate Cancer.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2018 Jun 14. pii: a033688. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a033688. [Epub ahead of print] Erratum in: Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2018 Jul 2;8(7):.
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Santoni M, Piva F, Scarpelli M, Cheng L, Lopez-Beltran A, Massari F, Iacovelli R, Berardi R, Santini D, Montironi R.
The origin of prostate metastases: emerging insights.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2015 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print]
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BIOLOGY


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Bhagirath D, Yang TL, Dahiya R, Saini S.
MicroRNAs as Regulators of Prostate Cancer Metastasis.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1095:83-100. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95693-0_5. First Online: 19 September 2018.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Hensel J, Thalmann GN.
Biology of Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer.
Urology. 2016 Jan 5. pii: S0090-4295(15)01193-0. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.039. [Epub ahead of print]
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Sowder ME, Johnson RW.
Bone as a Preferential Site for Metastasis.
JBMR Plus. 2019 Jan 15;3(3):e10126. doi: 10.1002/jbm4.10126. eCollection 2019 Mar.
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PATTERN OF METASTATIC DEPOSIT


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Pasoglou V, Michoux N, Van Damme J, Van Nieuwenhove S, Halut M, Triqueneaux P, Tombal B, Lecouvet FE.
Pattern of metastatic deposit in recurrent prostate cancer: a whole-body MRI-based assessment of lesion distribution and effect of primary treatment.
World J Urol. 2019 Mar 2. doi: 10.1007/s00345-019-02700-2. [Epub ahead of print]
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CELLULAR ADHESION


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Ruppender N, Larson S, Lakely B, Kollath L, Brown L, Coleman I, Coleman R, Nguyen H, Nelson PS, Corey E, Snyder LA, Vessella RL, Morrissey C, Lam HM.
Cellular Adhesion Promotes Prostate Cancer Cells Escape from Dormancy.
PLoS One. 2015 Jun 19;10(6):e0130565. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130565. eCollection 2015.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



DNA-REPAIR


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Mikropoulos C.
Should we Perform Genetic Testing on Men with Metastatic Prostate Cancer?
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2016 Oct 25. pii: S0936-6555(16)30327-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clon.2016.10.004. [Epub ahead of print]
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Pritchard CC, Mateo J, Walsh MF, De Sarkar N, Abida W, Beltran H, Garofalo A, Gulati R, Carreira S, Eeles R, Elemento O, Rubin MA, Robinson D, Lonigro R, Hussain M, Chinnaiyan A, Vinson J, Filipenko J, Garraway L, Taplin ME, AlDubayan S, Han GC, Beightol M, Morrissey C, Nghiem B, Cheng HH, Montgomery B, Walsh T, Casadei S, Berger M, Zhang L, Zehir A, Vijai J, Scher HI, Sawyers C, Schultz N, Kantoff PW, Solit D, Robson M, Van Allen EM, Offit K, de Bono J, Nelson PS.
Inherited DNA-Repair Gene Mutations in Men with Metastatic Prostate Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 4;375(5):443-53. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1603144. Epub 2016 Jul 6.
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EARLY DISSEMINATION


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Friberg S, Nyström A.
Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences.
Cancer Growth Metastasis. 2015 Nov 29;8:43-9. doi: 10.4137/CGM.S31244. eCollection 2015.
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MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASE


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Murray NP. Murray NP.
Minimal residual disease in prostate cancer patients after primary treatment: theoretical considerations, evidence and possible use in clinical management.
Biol Res. 2018 Sep 4;51(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s40659-018-0180-9.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



FUELED BY FAT?


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Abate-Shen C.
Prostate Cancer Metastasis - Fueled by Fat?
N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 26;378(17):1643-1645. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcibr1800808.
Comment on: Tannert C et al, Prenatal Correction of X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 26.
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Schneider H, Faschingbauer F, Schuepbach-Mallepell S, Körber I, Wohlfart S, Dick A, Wahlbuhl M, Kowalczyk-Quintas C, Vigolo M, Kirby N, Tannert C, Rompel O, Rascher W, Beckmann MW, Schneider P.
Prenatal Correction of X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia.
N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 26;378(17):1604-1610. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1714322.
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OSTEOCLASTS


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Zalucha JL, Jung Y, Joseph J, Wang J, Berry JE, Shiozawa Y, Taichman RS.
The Role of Osteoclasts in Early Dissemination of Prostate Cancer Tumor Cells.
J Cancer Stem Cell Res. 2015;3. pii: e1005.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



MICROENVIRONMENT


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Tourinho-Barbosa RR, de la Rosette J, Sanchez-Salas R.
Prostate cancer multifocality, the index lesion, and the microenvironment.
Curr Opin Urol. 2018 Aug 21. doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000537. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Fulltext | Similar articles



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Turner CJ, Edwards CM.
The Role of the Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer-Associated Bone Disease.
Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2016 Oct;14(5):170-7. doi: 10.1007/s11914-016-0323-2. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



MRI VISIBILITY


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Emberton M.
To see or not to see - what renders prostate cancer visible?
Nat Rev Urol. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1038/s41585-019-0167-5. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles
Comment on: Houlahan KE et al., Molecular Hallmarks of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visibility in Prostate Cancer.
Eur Urol. 2019 Jan 24. pii: S0302-2838(18)31044-3. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2018.12.036. [Epub ahead of print].
Source / Full text



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Houlahan KE, Salmasi A, Sadun TY, Pooli A, Felker ER, Livingstone J, Huang V, Raman SS, Ahuja P, Sisk AE Jr, Boutros PC, Reiter RE.
Molecular Hallmarks of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visibility in Prostate Cancer.
Eur Urol. 2019 Jan 24. pii: S0302-2838(18)31044-3. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2018.12.036. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles
Comment in: Emberton M., To see or not to see - what renders prostate cancer visible?
Nat Rev Urol. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1038/s41585-019-0167-5. [Epub ahead of print].
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OLIGOMETASTATIC PROSTATE CANCER


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Fraser M, Koontz B, Emmenegger U, De Meerleer G, Khoo V, Feng F, Corcoran NM, Hovens CM, Tran PT, Ost P, Boutros PC; GAP6 Consortium.
What Is Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer?
Eur Urol Focus. 2019 Jan 11. pii: S2405-4569(18)30411-5. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2018.12.009. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
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Kucharczyk MJ, Gravis G, Niazi T.
The Biology of Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer: A Different Beast than Polymetastatic Prostate Cancer.
Eur Urol Focus. 2018 Dec 4. pii: S2405-4569(18)30372-9. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2018.11.011.
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PATIENT AGE AND AGGRESSIVENESS


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Ji G, Huang C, Song G, Xiong G, Fang D, Wang H, Hao H, Cai L, He Q, He Z, Zhou L.
Are the Pathological Characteristics of Prostate Cancer More Aggressive or More Indolent Depending upon the Patient Age?
Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1438027. doi: 10.1155/2017/1438027. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
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LEAD TIME AND PROSTATE CANCER GRADE


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Assel M, Dahlin A, Ulmert D, Bergh A, Stattin P, Lilja H, Vickers AJ.
Association Between Lead Time and Prostate Cancer Grade: Evidence of Grade Progression from Long-term Follow-up of Large Population-based Cohorts Not Subject to Prostate-specific Antigen Screening.
Eur Urol. 2017 Oct 21. pii: S0302-2838(17)30860-6. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.10.004. [Epub ahead of print]
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PERINEURAL INVASION


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Zareba P, Flavin R, Isikbay M, Rider JR, Gerke TA, Finn S, Pettersson A, Giunchi F, Unger RH, Tinianow AM, Andersson SO, Andrén O, Fall K, Fiorentino M, Mucci LA.
Perineural invasion and risk of lethal prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Jan 6. pii: cebp.0237.2016. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0237. [Epub ahead of print]
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PDE5 INHIBITORS


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Peak TC, Richman A, Gur S, Yafi FA, Hellstrom WJ.
The Role of PDE5 Inhibitors and the NO/cGMP Pathway in Cancer.
Sex Med Rev. 2016 Jan;4(1):74-84. doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2015.10.004. Epub 2016 Jan 8.
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PROGRESSION AND RECURRENCE


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Cutruzzolà F, Giardina G, Marani M, Macone A, Paiardini A, Rinaldo S, Paone A.
Glucose Metabolism in the Progression of Prostate Cancer.
Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 21;8:97. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00097. eCollection
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Llukani E, Lepor H.
Etiology and Management of Earlier versus Later Biochemical Recurrence Following Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy.
BJU Int. 2017 Feb 20. doi: 10.1111/bju.13816. [Epub ahead of print]
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Moritz R, Ellinger J, Nuhn P, Haese A, Müller SC, Graefen M, Schlomm T, Bastian PJ.
DNA hypermethylation as a predictor of PSA recurrence in patients with low- and intermediate-grade prostate cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2013 Dec;33(12):5249-54.
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Wang W, Yang X, Dai J, Lu Y, Zhang J, Keller ET.
Prostate cancer promotes a vicious cycle of bone metastasis progression through inducing osteocytes to secrete GDF15 that stimulates prostate cancer growth and invasion.
Oncogene. 2019 Feb 12. doi: 10.1038/s41388-019-0736-3. [Epub ahead of print]
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CENTROSOME PATHOLOGIES


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Schatten H, Ripple MO.
The Impact of Centrosome Pathologies on Prostate Cancer Development and Progression.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1095:67-81. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95693-0_4. First Online: 19 September 2018.
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BEHAVIOR


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Cheng Y, Gao XH, Li XJ, Cao QH, Zhao DD, Zhou JR, Wu HX, Wang Y, You LJ, Yang HB, He YL, Li YR, Bian JS, Zhu QY, Birnbaumer L, Yang Y.
Depression promotes prostate cancer invasion and metastasis via a sympathetic-cAMP-FAK signaling pathway.
Oncogene. 2018 Mar 8. doi: 10.1038/s41388-018-0177-4. [Epub ahead of print]
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Hassan S, Karpova Y, Baiz D, Yancey D, Pullikuth A, Flores A, Register T, Cline JM, D'Agostino R Jr, Danial N, Datta SR, Kulik G.
Behavioral stress accelerates prostate cancer development in mice.
J Clin Invest. 2013 Feb 1;123(2):874-86. doi: 10.1172/JCI63324. Epub 2013 Jan 25.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Nagaraja AS, Armaiz-Pena GN, Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK.
Why stress is BAD for cancer patients.
J Clin Invest. 2013 Feb 1;123(2):558-60. doi: 10.1172/JCI67887. Epub 2013 Jan 25.
Comment relating to: Hassan S et al, Behavioral stress accelerates prostate cancer development in mice. J Clin Invest. 2013 Feb 1;123(2):874-86. doi: 10.1172/JCI63324. Epub 2013 Jan 25.
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Depression


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Cheng Y, Tang XY, Li YX, Zhao DD, Cao QH, Wu HX, Yang HB, Hao K, Yang Y.
Depression-Induced Neuropeptide Y Secretion Promotes Prostate Cancer Growth by Recruiting Myeloid Cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-2912. [Epub ahead of print]
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Mohammadpour H, Bucsek MJ, Hylander BL, Repasky EA.
Depression Stresses the Immune Response and Promotes Prostate Cancer Growth.
Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Jan 22. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3980. [Epub ahead of print]
Comment on: Cheng Y et al, Depression-Induced Neuropeptide Y Secretion Promotes Prostate Cancer Growth by Recruiting Myeloid Cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-2912. [Epub ahead of print] Source , Full text
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EXTRACELLULAR TRANSFER


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Miyazaki T, Ikeda K, Sato W, Horie-Inoue K, Inoue S.
Extracellular vesicle-mediated EBAG9 transfer from cancer cells to tumor microenvironment promotes immune escape and tumor progression.
Oncogenesis. 2018 Jan 24;7(1):7. doi: 10.1038/s41389-017-0022-6.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



NUTRITION




Cholesterol


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Heidegger I, Pichler R, Pircher A.
Cholesterol pathway the Achilles heel in prostate cancer metastasis.
Transl Androl Urol. 2018 Dec;7(Suppl 6):S686-S687. doi: 10.21037/tau.2018.08.12.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Krycer JR, Brown AJ.
Cholesterol accumulation in prostate cancer: a classic observation from a modern perspective.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Apr;1835(2):219-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2013.01.002. Epub 2013 Jan 26.
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Maly IV, Hofmann WA.
Fatty Acids and Calcium Regulation in Prostate Cancer.
Nutrients. 2018 Jun 19;10(6). pii: E788. doi: 10.3390/nu10060788.
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Diabetes


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Wu C, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC Jr, Kane CJ, Amling CL, Freedland SJ.
Diabetes predicts metastasis after radical prostatectomy in obese men: results from the SEARCH database.
BJU Int. 2013 Jan 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11687.x. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



REPROGRAMMING


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Borges GT, Vêncio EF, Quek SI, Chen A, Salvanha DM, Vêncio RZ, Nguyen HM, Vessella RL, Cavanaugh C, Ware CB, Troisch P, Liu AY.
Conversion of Prostate Adenocarcinoma to Small Cell Carcinoma-Like by Reprogramming.
J Cell Physiol. 2016 Jan 15. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25313. [Epub ahead of print]
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STROMAL FACTORS


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Eiro N, Fernandez-Gomez J, Sacristán R, Fernandez-Garcia B, Lobo B, Gonzalez-Suarez J, Quintas A, Escaf S, Vizoso FJ.
Stromal factors involved in human prostate cancer development, progression and castration resistance.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]
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PROSTATE SARCOMAS


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Sohn M, Kwon T, Jeong IG, Hong S, You D, Hong JH, Ahn H, Kim CS.
Histologic variability and diverse oncologic outcomes of prostate sarcomas.
Korean J Urol. 2014 Dec;55(12):797-801. doi: 10.4111/kju.2014.55.12.797. Epub 2014 Nov 28.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



RESISTANCE


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Chandrasekar T, Yang JC, Gao AC, Evans CP.
Targeting molecular resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
BMC Med. 2015 Sep 1;13:206. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0457-6.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Chen WY, Tsai YC, Yeh HL, Suau F, Jiang KC, Shao AN, Huang J, Liu YN.
Loss of SPDEF and gain of TGFBI activity after androgen deprivation therapy promote EMT and bone metastasis of prostate cancer.
Sci Signal. 2017 Aug 15;10(492). pii: eaam6826. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aam6826.
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Lohiya V, Aragon-Ching JB, Sonpavde G.
Role of Chemotherapy and Mechanisms of Resistance to Chemotherapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2016 Oct 9;10(Suppl 1):57-66.
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Nakazawa M, Paller C, Kyprianou N.
Mechanisms of Therapeutic Resistance in Prostate Cancer.
Curr Oncol Rep. 2017 Feb;19(2):13. doi: 10.1007/s11912-017-0568-7. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
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Pal SK, Patel J, He M, Foulk B, Kraft K, Smirnov DA, Twardowski P, Kortylewski M, Bhargava V, Jones JO.
Identification of mechanisms of resistance to treatment with abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Cancer. 2017 Dec 19. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31161. [Epub ahead of print]
Comment in: Stone L, Prostate cancer: Revealing mechanisms of resistance.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Perner S, Cronauer MV, Schrader AJ, Klocker H, Culig Z, Baniahmad A.
Adaptive responses of androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015 Jun 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Stone L.
Prostate cancer: Revealing mechanisms of resistance.
Nat Rev Urol. 2018 Jan 23. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2018.7. [Epub ahead of print]
Comment on: Pal SK et al.,Identification of mechanisms of resistance to treatment with abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Thoma C.
Prostate cancer: Fitting to overcome enzalutamide resistance.
Nat Rev Urol. 2016 Oct;13(10):564-5. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2016.160. Epub 2016 Aug 23.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Tsai YC, Liu YN.
New ideas in preventing castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017 Sep 30;8(49):84628-84629. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.21396. eCollection 2017 Oct 17.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Wang Y, Dehigaspitiya DC, Levine PM, Profit AA, Haugbro M, Imberg-Kazdan K, Logan SK, Kirshenbaum K, Garabedian MJ.
Multivalent Peptoid Conjugates Which Overcome Enzalutamide Resistance in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Cancer Res. 2016 Sep 1;76(17):5124-32. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-0385. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Zhang W, Meng Y, Liu N, Wen XF, Yang T.
Insights into Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer.
Int J Biol Sci. 2015 Aug 1;11(10):1160-70. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.11439. eCollection 2015.
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STATINS


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Papadopoulos G, Delakas D, Nakopoulou L, Kassimatis T.
Statins and prostate cancer: molecular and clinical aspects.
Eur J Cancer. 2011 Apr;47(6):819-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2011.01.005. Epub 2011 Feb 25.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Singh G, Sankanagoudar S, Dogra P, Chandra NC.
Interlink between cholesterol and cell cycle in prostate carcinoma.
Indian J Med Res. 2017 Nov;146(Suppl):S38-S44. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1639_15.
Source | Full text | Similar articles



STEM CELLS


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Lin CJ, Lo UG, Hsieh JT.
The regulatory pathways leading to stem-like cells underlie prostate cancer progression.
Asian J Androl. 2018 Sep 4. doi: 10.4103/aja.aja_72_18. [Epub ahead of print]
Source | Full text | Similar articles



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Sarveswaran S, Varma N, Morisetty S, Ghosh J.
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase downregulates stemness and kills prostate cancer stem cells by triggering apoptosis via activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
Oncotarget. 2016 Nov 17. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.13422. [Epub ahead of print]
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PROSTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA AS A STEM CELL DISEASE


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Adamowicz J, Pakravan K, Bakhshinejad B, Drewa T, Babashah S.
Prostate cancer stem cells: from theory to practice.
Scand J Urol. 2017 Apr;51(2):95-106. doi: 10.1080/21681805.2017.1283360. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
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Crowell PD, Goldstein AS.
Functional evidence that progenitor cells near sites of inflammation are precursors for aggressive prostate cancer.
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Jiang MY, Lee TL, Hao SS, Mahooti S, Baird SM, Donoghue DJ, Haas M.
Visualization of early prostatic adenocarcinoma as a stem cell disease.
Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 18. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.12709. [Epub ahead of print]
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SUBTYPING


DECIPHER GENOMIC TEST


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Mills IG.
Molecular Subtyping of Prostate Cancer: A Partnership Model.
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Tomlins SA, Alshalalfa M, Davicioni E, Erho N, Yousefi K, Zhao S, Haddad Z, Den RB, Dicker AP, Trock BJ, DeMarzo AM, Ross AE, Schaeffer EM, Klein EA, Magi-Galluzzi C, Karnes RJ, Jenkins RB, Feng FY.
Characterization of 1577 Primary Prostate Cancers Reveals Novel Biological and Clinicopathologic Insights into Molecular Subtypes.
Eur Urol. 2015 May 8. pii: S0302-2838(15)00375-9. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.04.033. [Epub ahead of print]
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TESTOSTERONE


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Robles LA, Dawe K, Martin RM, Higgins JPT, Lewis SJ.
Does testosterone mediate the relationship between vitamin D and prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.
Syst Rev. 2019 Feb 12;8(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s13643-018-0908-1.
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Gilani S, Guo CC, Li-Ning EM, Pettaway C, Troncoso P.
Transformation of prostatic adenocarcinoma to well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor after hormonal treatment.
Hum Pathol. 2017 Jan 31. pii: S0046-8177(17)30027-8. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2017.01.006. [Epub ahead of print]
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Barnett CM, Heinrich MC, Lim J, Nelson D, Beadling C, Warrick A, Neff T, Higano CS, Garzotto M, Qian D, Corless CL, Thomas GV, Beer TM.
Genetic Profiling to Determine Risk of Relapse-Free Survival in High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Feb 6.
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Bernard B, Flaig TW.
Point-Prostate Cancer Genomic Analysis: Routine or Research Only?
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Calzone KA et al., PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board.
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version.
PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2019 Mar 22.
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Calzone KA, et al., PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board.
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version.
PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). 2018
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Calzone KA, et al., PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board.
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version.
PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). 2017 Feb 10.
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Kelly WK, Knudsen KE.
Counterpoint-Prostate Cancer Genomic Analysis: Routine or Research Only?
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